Weather makes for a great long term project, especially at this autumnal time of year when the weather is quite changeable. Observing the weather ticks a number of EYFS boxes, particularly in Communication and Language and Understanding the World but you can also extend it into Literacy by having your older toddlers write weather symbols, and you can easily create counting games based on weather observations.
You can buy some really good weather and calendar charts, but you can make them yourself at almost no cost. Just create a chart on a large sheet of paper covering the days of the week and cut out some weather symbols stuck onto card. Have your little ones select the right weather symbols to match the current weather.
Because the weather can change, they can add symbols for each type of weather during the day. It may start off sunny, cloud over and then rain before clearing up again. Instill observation in your little ones by encouraging them, proactively, to add a symbol to the weather chart each time they observe a change outside.
Weather has a profound affect on us - it helps us decide what to do for the day. Create a weather board with your children, make templates to represent sun, cloud, rain, thunder and other weather phenomenon. Each morning, look outside and talk about the weather with your children. Place the relevant weather image on your board to describe the weather. You can even do this exercise with babies, repeat the weather word to them, 'sun', 'rain', 'cloud' or whichever is relevant. Show them the picture and point between the picture and the sky. In time they will begin to repeat sounds back to you, and will be able to point to the right picture according to the weather. This will be communicating before they can even utter full words! Record more detailed meterological information with older children. For example, note whether it rained during the day, and how much fell. Make a rain guage from an old plastic drinks bottle - cut off the top, mark lines on the side and number from the bottom, then leave it outside. Your kids will love an ongoing project and will learn loads about the weather!